Machine Vision
How it works










Components of an artificial vision system

A modern machine vision system includes:

The input image, a two-dimensional array of energy levels (eg, light) - is divided into image elements, called pixels. These are rows and columns that cover the entire area of the image and represent the gray levels in a monochromatic image or color coding in a color image. A pixel can not be subdivided into regions of lower levels of gray or color. This process is a kind spatial digitalization. For each pixel, information about the energy level must also be digitized, ie, analog levels (continuously variable) produced by the camera should be represented by a finite number of steps. In many applications it is sufficient to digitize a monochrome image with 8 bits per pixel, equivalent to 256 steps to represent the gray level of each pixel. In more demanding applications may be necessary to digitize to 14 bits (or 16,384 levels). Color images are more complex and can be represented in different formats. The color images typically contain three times more information than a monochrome image. Some vision systems do not use a camera matrix, instead using a linear camera that produces a single line or row of pixels. The two-dimensional image is generated as the object passes under the linear camera, taking advantage of his movement, usually generated from a conveyor belt. Uniting the different rows of pixels obtained at different intervals, you get a two-dimensional image.